Genetics and the neurophysiology of vision are the main areas of research in the institute.  Research is carried out in three scientific structural units, these are; Dr. K. Janušauskas’ Laboratory of Genetics, Scientific Twin Center, and the Laboratory of Neurophysiology of Vision.  

Dr. K. Janušauskas’ Laboratory of Genetics. In 1987 in the Lithuanian Veterinary Academy its Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics a laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics was founded and in 1997 a new division – Molecular Genetics of Animal - was established. The founder of the laboratory and the patriarch of genetic research of farm animals in Lithuania was Assoc. Prof. K. Janušauskas (1939-1999). In 2000 the laboratory was named after the professor, under whose initiative Cytogenetical and Molecular Genetics research of farm animals were started in Lithuania, a DNA bank of farm animals was created and research of native Lithuanian farm animals and birds began. Prof. K. Janušauskas headed the laboratory from 1987 up to 1999. Since 1999 the head of laboratory is Prof. Dr. Ilona Miceikiene. In 2011, after joining the Medical and Veterinary academies, Dr. K. Janušauskas’ Animal Genetics Laboratory was incorporated into the Institute of Biological Systems and Genetic Research. The research field of the Laboratory and its main focus areas are fundamental research, service, education, consultation. The mission is to help increase the selection effectiveness, animal productivity, quality of milk and meat, test animal and human genetic diseases, perform parentage verification and traceability of milk and meat by using new molecular technologies – marker assisted selection and genomic selection; and also to gather and conserve genetic material in DNA bank. The laboratory is equipped with highest quality molecular and cytogenetic technology. Recently research has started in searching markers for obesity and milk ability as well as a project for application of genomic selection to increase milk and beef cattle breeding value.

Scientific Twin Center – in 1970 at the Department of Biology of Kaunas Medical Institute a laboratory of cytogenetic was founded. The laboratory was headed by Prof. A. Sinkus, who interned and worked in Vienna and Ulm Universities. His work became widely known and acknowledged in other countries. In 2004 the Twin Center was established on the basis of the Department of Biology. This center is for genetic research, study and service. It is a functional unit of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences,  which also includes the following departments;  Institute of Biological Systems and Genetic research, Orthodontic Clinic, Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes mellitus laboratory, Laboratory of Cardiovascular research Automation in Cardiology Institute and Gastroenterology Clinic. At the Twin Center the heritability of multifactorial pathology is tested by the twin method.

From 2011 to 2016 the head of Biology Systems and Genetic Research Institute – Prof. I.T.Miceikienė – also was the head of the Scientific Twin Center. Since November 2016 the Twin Center is being coordinated by lecturer Loreta Šalomskienė.