Main research areas of institute are related to genetics and neurophysiology of vision.  Research is carried out in three scientific structural units as Dr. K. Janušauskas’ Genetics Laboratory, Scientific Twin Center, Laboratory of Neurophysiology of Vision.  

Dr. K. Janušauskas’ Genetics Laboratory. In 1987 year in Lithuanian Veterinary Academy in the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics was founded Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics while in 1997 year new division – Animal Molecular Genetics - was created. The founder of the laboratory and the patriarch of farm animal genetic research in Lithuania was associated professor K. Janušauskas (1939-1999). In the year 2000 the laboratory was named after his name. Under professors initiative cytogenetical and molecular genetics research of farm animals were started in Lithuania, DNA bank of farm animals created and conservation and research of native Lithuanian farm animals and birds started. Prof. K. Janušauskas headed laboratory from 1987 up to 1999 year. Starting from 1999 up to now the head of laboratory is prof. dr. Ilona Miceikiene. In 2011 after joining Medical and Veterinary academies Dr. K. Janušauskas’ Animal Genetics Laboratory was incorporated into Institute of Biology Systems and Genetic Research. Laboratory research field and aim of interests and activities – fundamental research, service, education, consultation. The mission of laboratory is using new molecular technologies – marker assisted selection, genomic selection – help to increase selection effectiveness, animal productivity, quality of milk and meat, test animal and human genetic diseases, perform parentage verification and traceability of milk and meat products by DNA tests, gather and conserve genetic material in DNA bank. Laboratory is equipped with highest quality molecular and cytogenetic techniques. Recently research in searching markers for obesity and milk ability as well as project for application of genomic selection to increase milk and beef cattle breeding value started.

Scientific Twin Center – in 1970 at the Department of Biology of Kaunas Medical Institute was founded laboratory of cytogenetic. Laboratory was headed by prof. A. Sinkus, who interned at and worked in Vienna and Ulm Universities. The performed work became widely known and to acknowledged in other countries. In 2004 the Twin Center was established on the base Department of Biology. This center is genetic research, study and service center. The center is

functional unit of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences including departments:  Institute of Biology Systems and Genetic, Orthodontic Clinic, Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes mellitus laboratory, Laboratory of cardiovascular research automation in Cardiology Institute and Gastroenterology Clinic. These units study multivariate pathology inheritance using the classical twin method. From 2011 year the head of Biology Systems and Genetic Research Institute prof. I.T.Miceikienė takes the lead of Scientific Twin Center. Heritability of multifactorial pathology is tested by twin method.

In the Laboratory of Neurophysiology of Vision (Department of Biology, later Institute of Biology), the scientific studies of visual perception have been developed over 45 years. During this period, applying up-to-date methods and trainee-ship knowledge, the Laboratory's scientists have investigated the structure and principles of functioning of the receptive fields of separate neurons as well as their systems at the level of primary visual cortex and subcortical ones; have analyzed the perception of color, brightness, size, and shape of visual objects; have explored the neurophysiological effects of color constancy and invariance;  have investigated the regularities of the visual field anisotropy; have developed mathematical modeling of various visual phenomena. In 1991, the Laboratory's scientists actively participated in organizing of the international scientific meeting in Lithuania, the European Conference on Visual Perception (ECVP-1991). In cooperation with the foreign colleagues they published the study “Spatial color vision”. At 1993, the International Cure Quality Commission has recognized the value of the Laboratory's research projects and positively rated its scientific activity.  At 1994 prof. A. Bertulis became the recipient of the Lithuanian National Scientific Award. During the recent 20 years, the Laboratory's scientists concentrate mainly on issues concerning the peculiarities in the visual perception of size, shape, orthogonality, and curvature. The important part of the current scientific activity is further development of mathematical models of the geometric illusions on extent, with aim to explain the misperception of visual objects localization in terms of neural procedures of automatic centroid extraction. The laboratory is headed by prof. habil. dr. Aleksandr Bulatov.