Department of Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry
In 1922, the University of Lithuania was established. Lectures of chemistry (inorganic, organic, analytical and physical) for pharmacy students of the Faculty of Medicine were delivered in particular departments of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Physiological and colloid chemistry were taught in the Department of Physiology and Physiological Chemistry headed by prof. V. Lašas.
In 1944, the Department of Chemistry was founded in the University. In 1951, Kaunas State University (former University of Lithuania) was reorganised into two high schools – Kaunas Medical Institute and Kaunas Polytechnic Institute. All the disciplines of fundamental chemistry for pharmacy students were delivered in the Department of Chemistry. Heads of the Department were A. Gabrėnas (1944-1951) and K. Edigarovas, PhD in biology (1952 – 1953). In 1953, because of an increased number of students, the Department was reorganised into two separate departments: Department of General Chemistry and Department of Biological and Organic Chemistry. At this time, the head of the Department J. Janickis (PhD in chemistry), senior teachers J. Arnastauskas, V. Gubavičius and D. Reingardas as well as assistants B. Navickienė, E. Klimavičienė and M. Padolskis worked in the Department of General Chemistry.
Since 1957, the Department of General Chemistry was headed by J. Arnastauskas. A. Janutytė after completing pharmacy studies and J. Šuliakienė after completing chemical technology (at Kaunas Polytechnic Institute) joined the Department as assistants. Also, after completing their pharmacy studies A. Matulionienė (1960), R. Kelerienė (1963), B. Aleknavičienė (1965) and M. Sapragonienė (1965) joined the Department as new teachers. A physical chemist I. Pivoriūnaitė, who graduated from Vilnius University, started working in 1964. G. Karnišauskaitė started in 1966 after completing her graduate studies and defending her doctoral thesis in Pyatigorsk. Heads of the Department of General Chemistry had a doctoral degree in technical sciences, namely assoc. prof. L. Džekčiorius (1972-1983) and assoc. prof. M. Sapragonienė (1983-1987).
In 1987, the Department of General Chemistry was reorganised into the Department of Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry, headed by prof. P. Vainauskas. Since April 2008, the Department of Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry was headed by prof. L. Ivanauskas.
The scientists of the Department collaborate with scientific and higher education institutions in Lithuania and abroad. Some research problems are solved with colleagues in the University of Montpellier in France, where graduate students improve their knowledge in instrumental analysis. Some investigations are carried out with the colleagues from the Department of Pharmacognosy.
The studies are organised in Lithuanian and English languages for students of the Faculty of Pharmacy (master’s degree) and the Faculty of Medicine (bachelor’s degree in Medical and veterinary biochemistry and Medical and veterinary genetics). In the Department, the studies are organised for graduate students (doctoral degree), too. In the Department, students learn:
1. General and inorganic chemistry (1st year students);
2. Analytical chemistry (1st and 2nd year students);
3. Organic chemistry (1st and 2nd year students);
4. Instrumental analysis (2nd year students);
5. Physical and colloid chemistry (2nd year students);
6. Analytical toxicology (4th year students).
1. Organic synthesis (2nd year students);
2. Bio-inorganic chemistry (2nd year students);
3. Metal toxicology (5th year students).
The study material of all the disciplines is taught in theory and in practice. Theoretical courses are organised with the help of a variety of visual materials. Practical classes take place in the laboratory, where students are introduced to multidisciplinary research methods and equipment.
The main topic of the scientific research in the Department is “Pharmacokinetic and toxicological investigations”. The aim and the tasks are as follows:
- to promote development of modern research techniques in toxicology and pharmacology and the quality assessment of medicinal raw and medicinal products;
- to develop chemical analysis methodologies for medicinal products and adopt them for use in the scientific and industrial area;
- to study bioequivalence of medicines and raw material;
- to develop methodologies for the analysis of impurities, metabolites and various toxins;
- to carry out high-quality research projects;
- to perform contrastive analysis of different natural origin products.
The main areas of activity:
- pharmacokinetic studies of medicinal and toxic compounds in vitro and development and optimisation of methodologies;
- bioequivalence studies;
- analysis of heavy metals and pesticides in medicinal products;
- investigation and validation of analysis methodologies for the determination of drugs in biological objects.
Much attention is given to the main principles in drug synthesis, purity, qualitative and quantitative analysis of synthesised compounds.
In the Department, research is carried out not only by the staff of the Department, but also by graduates and students. Research results are published in Lithuanian and foreign publications.
Department of Pharmacognosy
The history of the Department of Pharmacognosy begins in 1922, when the University of Lithuania was established in Kaunas. A combined Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy was established in the section of Pharmacy of the Faculty of Medicine. In 1932, the Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy was established in the building of the Faculty of Medicine (A. Mickevicius str. 9). In 1978, during reorganisation of the departments of the Faculty, the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, which existed until 2008, was established. In 2008, it was reorganised into an independent Department of Pharmacognosy. Today, the Department of Pharmacognosy employs 4 professors, 2 associate professors and 3 lecturers.
The Department participates in the following study programmes of the Faculty of Pharmacy: “Pharmacy”, “Pharmacy for international students” and “Pharmacy technicians”. The staff of the Department deliver the following disciplines: the discipline of basic pharmaceutical botany for the first year students of the Faculty of Pharmacy, profile disciplines of pharmacognosy for the third year students of the Faculty of Pharmacy, chemical research on phytopreparations for the fifth year students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and elective disciplines “Drugs of plant origin” and “Food supplements of plant origin” for the fourth year students of the Faculty of Pharmacy. PhD studies are available in the Department. Currently, there are two PhD students in the Department.
The scientific work area of the Department involves investigations into the chemical composition of plant origin raw materials and herbal preparations. The area of research covers development, optimisation and application of HPLC methods. New modern informative analysis methods characterised by high selectivity and informational capability are being developed and validated for the chemical evaluation of the groups of biologically active compounds in raw materials of plant origin. The reseach on the composition and variation of phenolic compounds in raw materials of Sorbus L. is performed in the Department. Analytical HPLC methods are being developed, optimised and applied for the phytochemical composition analysis of the rowans (Sorbus L.) that naturally grow in Lithuania and are cultivated in collections. The study on antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of samples of different varieties of apples is undertaken, too. HPLC methods for the analysis of phytochemical composition (phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins) are developed and applied for the research of different samples of apple varieties that are grown in Lithuania. HPLC post-column assays are developed and optimised. Post-column reaction assay is perspective in applicational point of view due to wide practice in analytical and chemometrical bioactivity evaluation as well as in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Besides, the scientific research on optimisation of equipment complementation and system constitution for the screening of various antioxidants of plant origin, for the evaluation of their distribution in different plant organs, and for quality control by antioxidant activity is performed. DPPH and ABTS post-column assays are optimised for the rapid identification and activity determination of antioxidants in complex mixtures after the chromatographical separation of analytes. The reseach evaluating antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in the extracts of herbal raw materials is conducted as well. The scientific research on biological activity of flavonoids and phenolic acids in various plant origin raw materials in vitro and in vivo is performed. The scientific knowledge on medicinal plants, their effect variability and usage perspectives is compiled, accumulated and systematised. The study of flavonoids and phenolic acids on cellular energetics and ischaemia/reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo is in progress. The mechanism of ischaemia/reperfusion action on kidney mitochondria is under research, too. The effect of biologically active compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids and others) on the oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria, antioxidant properties and possibilities to protect mitochondria from detrimental effects of the oxidative stress, is studied in the Department.
Scientists of the Department cooperate with Lithuanian scientific and academic institutions:
- Cultivation conditions of introduced and cultivated plants are investigated in cooperation with research scientists of Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University.
- Research into medicinal herbal raw materials is performed in collaboration with the Institute of Horticulture of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.
- Quantitative and qualitative composition of essential oils is studied in cooperation with the Department of Food Technology of Kaunas University of Technology.
- Effects of dry extracts of medicinal herbal raw materials on rat heart mitochondrial functions are investigated in cooperation with the laboratory of biochemistry of the Neuroscience Institute.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy
The Department of Clinical Pharmacy was established in 2011 in response to an increasing demand from the society and the health care system to give pharmaceutical professionals necessary knowledge and competences to take responsibility for ensuring safe and effective use of medicines and to participate efficiently in the teamwork with other medical professionals: doctors, nursing staff and public health specialists. Studies in clinical pharmacy will provide opportunities for a closer cooperation between doctors and pharmacists with the most important goal - health of the individual and the society. From the moment of establishment, the Department of Clinical Pharmacy has been headed by professor Vitalis Briedis.
Currently, there are 9 employees in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 7 of whom are pedagogical and 2 are administrative staff. At present, 2 professors, 1 associate professor, 1 lecturer and 3 assistant lecturers are employed in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy. There are also 6 doctoral students implementing research projects in the Department.
The Department of Clinical Pharmacy is responsible for teaching the following compulsory courses in the integrated study programme of pharmacy: biopharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy, pharmaceutical biotechnology and development of medicinal products. Also, the Department participates in formulating biopharmaceutics and clinical pharmacy tasks for practical activities and training in pharmacy practice in public and/or hospital pharmacies.
Main research areas and research topics:
- Clinical aspects of safe and efficient application of medicinal products;
- Biopharmaceutics of drugs – pharmaceutical and physiological factors influencing bioavailability of drug substances and biologically active components.
- Biopharmaceutical evaluation of semi-solid and solid dosage forms;
- Permeability of drugs through biological membranes: modeling and in vitro / in vivo studies;
- Effect of pharmaceutical factors on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medicinal products;
- Creation of innovative advanced therapy medicinal products.
Department of Drug Chemistry
The University of Lithuania (Kaunas) was founded in 1922 (in 1930 renamed Vytautas Magnus University). The Faculty of Medicine of the University had 4 branches; one of them was the Pharmacy branch, which had only one Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy. The Department was established and headed until 1939 by prof. Petras Raudonikis. In 1932, the building of the Faculty of Medicine (A.Mickevičius str. 9) was built and the Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy was transferred to the third floor of the building. In 1944, after the re-establishment of the University, this Department was reorganised into 2 profile departments: the Department of Pharmacy (later renamed the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry) and the Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy. The Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry was headed by prof. B. Šiaulis since 1939 until his death in 1957. The Department was headed by assoc. prof. V. Brasiūnas in 1957-1972, by assoc. prof. E. Tarasevičius in 1972-1983, by assoc. prof. P. Vainauskas in 1983-1987, by assoc. prof. F. Malinauskas in 1987-1993 and by prof. V. Janulis in 1993-2008. Since 2008, after reorganisation of the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy into 2 departments, the Department of Pharmacognosy has been headed by prof. V. Janulis and the Department of Drug Chemistry by prof. H. Rodovičius.
The staff of the Department defended their doctoral theses: E. Tarasevičius in Lviv Medical Institute in 1967, R. Bernatonienė in Moscow Medical Institute in 1977, H. Rodovičius in Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv in 1984, F. Malinauskas in All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Drug Chemistry and Technology of Kharkiv in 1987, V. Brusokas in Moscow Institute of Precision Chemical Technology in 1988, A. Dagilytė in Kaunas University of Medicine in 2001, V. Petrikaitė in Kaunas University of Medicine in 2007 and R. Benetis in Kaunas University of Medicine in 2009. E. Tarasevičius defended his thesis for the degree of Habilitated Doctor in Moscow Medical Academy in 1990.
The Department of Drug Chemistry delivers the following subjects in the study programme of pharmacy: Pharmaceutical chemistry for second and third year students, 2 elective subjects in the module Discovery of drugs – Drug structure-activity relationship and Molecular modelling in drug discovery – for third year students, Chemistry of medicines for fourth year students, Xenobiotics metabolism and Practice of pharmaceutical analysis for fifth year students. The teachers of the Department deliver the following subjects for pharmacy technicians in the master’s study programme in pharmacy: Pharmaceutical chemistry for second year students, Chemistry of medicines for second and third year students, Xenobiotics metabolism for third year students and Practice of pharmaceutical analysis for fourth year students. Under the supervision of the staff of the Department, students of the Faculty of Pharmacy perform practice of pharmaceutical analysis in various pharmacies of Lithuania.
The subject of the research work of the Department of Drug Chemistry is “Synthesis, analysis and investigation of the action of biologically active compounds in living organisms”. In the Department, the researchers perform synthesis and analysis of biologically active compounds, investigate relation between chemical and biological activity, as well as research metabolism, identify metabolites, investigate relation between chemical structure and pharmacological activity and select most effective compounds for preclinical research. Synthesis of the new compounds with antifungous, antimicrobial, antituberculosis and anticancer activities is based on pharmacophore modelling and further structure activity relationship analysis. We also study a possible protective role of phytochemicals, Zn and Se on the protein synthesis system under the action of the ions of heavy metals (Pb,Cd, Al) in animals as well as the action of phytochemicals on the dynamic changes of heavy metals in vivo and interactions of biologically active compounds with heavy metals in vivo.
Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy
The staff of the Department consists of 32 employees (23 researchers), including 5 professors (1 habil. dr.), 11 associate professors, 2 lecturers (dr.) and 5 assistant teachers. In addition to that, there are 3 doctoral students in the Department. Students pursue their studies in the following programmes: an integrated study program Pharmacy (for Lithuanian and foreign students) and an integrated study programme Pharmacy for pharmacy technicians. Upon graduation from LSMU MA Faculty of Pharmacy, students acquire the master’s degree in pharmacy (a pharmacist’s professional qualification). The Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy also provides refresher courses for pharmacy specialists.
In 1922, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Lithuania had a Division of Pharmacy, which included the Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy headed by prof. P. Raudonikis. In 1944, 3 profile departments were established: 1) the Department of Pharmacy (later on renamed the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry); 2) the Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy (1944); and 3) the Department of Technology of Drug Forms and Galenical Preparations (1948). Prof. P. Raudonikis was assigned the head of the latter Department. He also taught the subject “Organisation of Pharmaceutical Work”. After prof. P. Raudonikis died in 1950, the Department was headed by the Candidate of Sciences in Pharmacy E. Kanopka. At that time, the staff of the Department – besides its head – consisted of only 2 assistant teachers. When in 1953 prof. K. Grybauskas died, the Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy and the Department of Technology of Drug Forms and Galenical Preparations were combined into one Department of Pharmacognosy and Technology of Drug Forms and Galenical Preparations. The number of the staff was not stable due to significant variations in the number of students of pharmacy (from 25 to 75). When the curricula changed, by the decision of the LSSR Board of the Ministry of Higher and Specialised Secondary Education, the Department was renamed the Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Technology. At that time, the staff of the Department consisted of 2 associate professors, 3 senior teachers and 3 assistant teachers. In total, 4 subjects were taught: botany, pharmacognosy, drug technology and organisation of pharmaceutical work and economics. In 1972, assoc. prof. D. Bernatonis was elected the head of the Department. In the same year, the administration of the chemical-pharmaceutical factory “Sanitas” (director H. Dūdėnas) equipped a training laboratory for the Department in the factory premises. This laboratory provided all the necessary conditions for laboratory assignments in industrial drug technology. From 1973 on, the subject of the organisation of pharmaceutical work and economics was taught in the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. In 1977, assoc. prof. E. Kaikarienė was elected the head of this Department. In 1979, the profile departments of pharmacy were reorganised into: 1) the Department of Drug Technology, Organisation of Pharmaceutical Work and Economics and 2) the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy. Assoc. prof. E. Kaikarienė headed the Department until 1987. In 1987, assoc. prof. D. Bernatonis was the head of the Department. During 1987-1992, the Department was headed by prof. A. Gendrolis, and since 1992 by assoc. prof. A. Savickas. In 1990, the Department lost its training laboratory in “Sanitas”. In September 1992, the staff of the Department was complemented by some employees of the Department of Professional Development of Certified Pharmacists, also taking over its workload – refresher courses for pharmacy specialists. Until 1 September 1984, certified pharmacists had undergone qualification improvement in the Faculty of Pharmacy of Kaunas Medical Institute. Qualification improvement courses for certified pharmacists were headed by R. Paulauskas, A. Motiejūnas, V. Kasperavičius and V. Jasinskas. On 1 January 1985, refresher courses for physicians and certified pharmacists were introduced. Here, 2 departments were established: the Department of Electrical Stimulation and the Department for the Development of Certified Pharmacists. The latter Department had 8 teachers and 6 laboratory assistants. The employees from the Department of Drug Technology, Organisation of Pharmaceutical Work and Economics, the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and the Department of Pharmacology were also transferred to this Department. R. Pečiūra was assigned the head of this Department. The Department for the Development of Certified Pharmacists organised subject-based qualification improvement cycles for certified pharmacists – organisers, technologists and analysts. From 1989 on, the Department organised refresher courses for pharmacy technicians. In 1992, the Department for the Development of Certified Pharmacists was closed down due to financial shortages, and qualification improvement of pharmacy specialists was taken over by the Department of Drug Technology, Organisation of Pharmaceutical Work and Economics. At that time, the refresher courses for pharmacy specialists were headed by assoc. prof. L. K. Švambaris. In 1993, the Department was renamed the Department of Drug Technology and Organisation of Pharmacy. Between 1950 and 1996, the following teachers of the Department successfully defended their dissertations of Candidate of Sciences (since 1990, doctoral theses): E. Kaikarienė (1954), D. Baranauskaitė (1965), G. Pužienė (1967), D. Bernatonis (1968), V. Janulis (1978), A. Savickas (1983), H. Petkevičius (1984), R. Railaitė (1985), R. Radžiūnas (1988), V. Briedis (1990), Ž. Martinėnas (1992) and A. Baranauskas (1996). In 1987, prof. A. Gendrolis defended his doctoral (currently, habilitated doctor’s) dissertation, and, in 1995, assoc. prof. A. Savickas successfully defended his habilitation thesis, too.
In 1964, on the initiative of assoc. prof. A. Kaikaris, the Department started collecting valuable items from State pharmaceutical enterprises, pharmacies and pharmacists. These items formed the basis of the Museum of Pharmacy established in 1975. Since 1979, the museum belongs to the Department and is used for the training of students.
On 9 March 2005, by the Rector’s decree No. V-70 and on the basis of the decision of the Senate dated 11 February 2005, the Department was renamed from the Department of Drug Technology and Organisation of Pharmaceutical Work to the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy.
The research topic of the Department:
A study on the development of drug technology and adaptation of pharmaceutical activity to modern qualitative changes.
Coordinator of the research topic: Prof. habil. dr. Arūnas Savickas, Tel. +370 32-83-04, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sub-topics of scientific research:
1. Studies of biological activity of natural and synthetic pharmaceutical preparations and additives in order to identify their possible biological target and to clarify their mechanisms of activity;
2. Production and evaluation of semi-solid drug forms;
3. Identification of antioxidants and evaluation of their activity;
4. A study on the integration of the elements of pharmaceutical care into pharmacy quality management systems;
5. Research on the history of Lithuanian and the world’s pharmacy;
6. A study on medicinal substances and treatment techniques used in Lithuanian folk medicine;
7. A study on the possibilities for increasing effectiveness of the activity of pharmacies on the basis of the analysis of new drug technologies, pharmacological services, pharmacoeconomics and pharmacoepidemiology.
Students start studying in the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy from their second year of studies (pharmacy technicians from the first year).
The following subjects are taught in the Department:
Compulsory subjects: Technology of Pharmacy Drugs; Industrial Pharmaceutical Technology; Social Pharmacy (Pharmaceutical Care for foreign students).
Elective courses of general pharmaceutical technologies:
1. General Pharmaceutical Technology;
2. Engineering in Pharmaceutical Technology;
3. Technological Processes in Pharmaceutics.
Elective subjects of development of pharmacy and economics:
1. History of Pharmacy, Professional Ethics and Economics;
2. History of Pharmacy, Microeconomics and Management;
3. Development of Pharmacy, Merchandise of Medicine and Organisation of Pharmaceutical Economic Work in Community Pharmacies.
Elective courses of pharmaceutical care:
1. Management of Medication Therapy Processes in Pharmaceutical Care;
2. Basics of Clinical Consulting in Pharmaceutical Service.
1. Organisation of Pharmaceutical Activities in a Pharmacy;
3. Implementation of Good Pharmacy Practice Standards into Pharmaceutical Activity;
4. Standardisation of Pharmaceutical Practice.
5th-year students undergo their compulsory training in Practice of Pharmaceutical Technology and Social Pharmacy practice (Pharmaceutical Care for foreign students) in Lithuanian pharmacies.
4th and 5th years are for the final master’s thesis.
International relations and cooperation
Specialists of the Department receive positive feedback from Austria, India, Portugal, the USA, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, Ukraine and other countries.
The employees of the Department have published their papers in such scientific journals as “Farmacijos verslas” (Pharmacy Business), “Farmacija ir laikas” (Pharmacy and Time), “Gydymo menas” (The Art of Treatment), “Farmacijos žinios” (Pharmacy News), “Medicina” (Medicine), “Biomedicina” (Biomedicine), “Biologija” (Biology), etc.
A number of patents serve as a proof of the novelty of the Department’s scientific research activity.
Relations and cooperation
The researchers of the Department cooperate with Lithuanian scientific and higher educational institutions including LSMU Institute for Biomedical Research Laboratory of Biochemistry, Departments of Physiology, Microbiology and Biochemistry, LSMU pharmacy, KTU Department of Food Technology, KTU Food Institute, companies “Biok”, “Sanitas”, “Valentis” and “Aconitum”, Institute of Phytotherapy (Moscow, Russia), Ukrainian National University of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacotherapy, Zaporozhye State Medical University Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Czech Republic) and Medical University of Gdansk (Poland) Department of Pharmaceutical Technology.
The researchers of the Department have participated in international symposia: “Functional Foods for Chronic Diseases” in the USA in 2005-2008; the meeting of phytotherapists in Moscow and a scientific conference on pharmacy in Estonia in 2006; a symposium in Greece, the 19th International Symposium on Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis in Poland, the 12th International Congress Phytopharmin St. Petersburg in 2008; the conference “Medicinal Plants” in India in 2009; and the conference “Aromatic Plants” in Antalya (Turkey) and the 11th International Chemistry Conference in Luxor (Egypt) in 2010.
The researchers of the Department (prof. A. Savickas, prof. J. Bernatonienė, assoc. prof. G. Drakšienė, assoc. prof. Z. Kalvėnienė, prof. N. Savickienė and prof. D. Majienė) participate in various projects, such as the international project “Eureka: Development of a Multifunctional Cream from Natural Products” (2007-2009), Lithuanian State Studies Foundation research project “Development of Technologies for Capsules from Dry Extracts and Microelements and Selection of Analysis Techniques” (2007-2008), a project financed by KMU (currently LSMU) Science Foundation “Selection of Optimal Ginkgo, Hawthorn and Motherwort Combinations and Development of Capsules following Evaluation of the Effect of These Plants on Cardiovascular Function” (2008–2010), the project “Prevention of Nephrotoxicity and Treatment with Pharmacological and Cellular Preparations” (2009 -2013), “Evaluation and Functionalisation of Biological Activity of Lectins” (2010-2011) and the project entitled “Research and Elaboration of Directions for Use of New Plant Polypeptides of the Lectin Family as Potential Immunomodulators and Cytostatic Agents” (2013-2014).